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Кафедра клинической фармакологии СГМА / Лекции и занятия

Факультет иностранных студентов, 5 курс

G.P. Faculty. Year 5

Topic 1

Clinical pharmacology: subject, aims, tasks, basic concepts and terms. Current methods of evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of medications.

Control questions:

  1. Clinical pharmacology definition. Role of clinical pharmacology in modern medicine.
  2. Current nomenclature of drugs, types of drug names, examples.
  3. Pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetics (PK).
  4. Methods of evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of drugs, phases of clinical trials. “Good Clinical Practice” (GCP).
  5. Basic pharmacokinetic processes: absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and their determinative factors. Clinical significance.
  6. Definition of presystemic metabolism (The first-pass effect), its mechanism, examples. Definition of prodrugs, examples.
  7. Excretion of drugs. Mechanisms of renal excretion. Methods of renal function evaluation.
  8. Basic pharmacological parameters: bioavailability, half-life, steady-state concentration, and their clinical significance. Therapeutic drug monitoring: its role and indications.
  9. Adverse effects of drugs: definitions of side effects, adverse events and adverse drug reactions (ADR). Examples.
  10. Definition of drug interactions. Mechanisms of interactions: pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic. Examples.
  11. Principles of rational drug prescription.

Topic 2

Clinical Pharmacology of Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Control questions:

  1. Classification of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) depending on effect, chemical structure and selectivity regarding different forms of cyclooxygenase.
  2. Principle effects of NSAIDs, general indications and contraindications.
  3. NSAIDs ADRs, ways of prevention and management.
  4. Drug interactions with NSAIDs, clinical significance.
  5. Principles of prescription and dosing of NSAIDs, principles of drug choice depending on clinical situation.
  6. Aspirin: PD, PK, dependence dose-effect, ADRs, symptoms of intoxication, prophylaxis and treatment.
  7. Indometacin: PD, PK, indications, ADRs, drug interactions.
  8. Diclofenac: PD, PK and ADRs in comparison with indometacin. Indications.
  9. Phenylbutazone: peculiarities of PD and ADR, indications.
  10. Oxicams (piroxicam, meloxicam, lornoxicam): differences in PD, PK, ADRs. Indications.
  11. Ibuprofen, naproxen: features of PD and tolerance, indications.
  12. Cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (celecoxib): PD, PK, ADRs, indications.
  13. Metamizol: PD, ADRs, indications.
  14. Paracetamol: PD, PK, indications, ADRs; symptoms of intoxication, its prevention and management.
  15. Ketorolac: PD, ADRs, and indications.

Topic 3

Clinical pharmacology of Glucocorticoids

Control questions:

  1. PD of glucocorticoids (GC), genomic and non-genomic effects of GC.
  2. PK and route of administration of parenteral forms of GC depending on the type of the ether.
  3. GC specific ADRs involving different organs and systems.
  4. ADRs of GC depending on the time of onset and conditions (early, late, during long-term use, risk factors). Most common infectious complications of GC therapy.
  5. Prevention and control of GC specific ADRs.
  6. Secondary adrenal insufficiency, risk factors, ways of its prevention and management.
  7. Drug interactions of GC.
  8. General indications and contraindications for GC therapy. Types of GC therapy (replacement therapy, suppressant, pharmacodynamics) and routes of administration (systemic, local). GC administration during pregnancy and breast-feeding.
  9. Cortisone and hydrocortisone: PD, PK, ADRs, indications.
  10. Prednisolone: PD, ADRs and indications in comparison with hydrocortisone.
  11. Prednisone and methylprednisolone: PD, ADRs and indications in comparison with prednisolone.
  12. Triamcinolone and dexamethasone: PD, ADRs and indications in comparison with prednisolone.
  13. Principles of long-term GC therapy: chronotherapeutic approach, alternating therapy, its advantages and disadvantages.
  14. GC pulse therapy: indications, ADRs.
  15. Local administration of GC (inhalational, intranasal, intra-articular, topical): advantages over systemic use, indications.
  16. Beclometasone and fluticasone: PD, PK, ADRs, indications, route of administration.
  17. Triamcinolone acetonide: PD, PK, ADRs, indications, route of administration.

Topic 4

Clinical pharmacology of antimicrobial drugs. Part 1 — β-lactams

Control questions:

  1. Penicillins: classification, general characteristics.
  2. Penicillin V: spectrum of activity, PK, indications.
  3. Penicillin V, benzatin penicillin, procain penicillin: PK and indications in comparison with penicillin G.
  4. Antistaphylococcal penicillins (oxacillin): spectrum of activity and PK in comparison with penicillin G, indications.
  5. Aminopenicillins (ampicillin, amoxicillin): spectrum of activity and PK in comparison with penicillin, indications.
  6. Antipseudomonal penicillins (ticarcillin, piperacillin): spectrum of activity, PK, indications.
  7. β-lactamase inhibitors (sulbactam, clavulanate, tazobactam): their clinical significance.
  8. Combinations of penicillins and β-lactamase inhibitor (amoxicillin/clavulanate, ticarcillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam): spectrum of activity, indications.
  9. Penicillins specific ADRs. Prevention and management.
  10. Cephalosporins: classification, general properties, ADRs.
  11. Cefazolin, cefuroxime: spectrum of activity, PK, indications.
  12. Cefotaxime, ceftriaxone: spectrum of activity and PK, indications.
  13. Cephalosporins with antipseudomonal activity (ceftazidime, cefoperazone): spectrum of activity and PK in comparison with cefotaxime.
  14. Cefepime: spectrum of activity and PK in comparison with cefotaxime, indications.
  15. Oral cephalosporins (cephalexin, cefuroxim axetil, cefixime): differences in spectrum of activity and PK, indications.
  16. Carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem): spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, and indications.

Topic 5

Clinical pharmacology of antimicrobial drugs. Part 2 — antimicrobials of different groups (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, glycopeptides, lincosamides, rifampicin, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole)

Control questions:

  1. Aminoglycosides: spectrum of activity, PK. Dosing depending on different factors (age, body weight, renal function, dosing schedule).
  2. Aminoglycosides: ADRs, risk factors, prevention and management; drug interactions.
  3. Streptomycin, kanamycin: spectrum of activity, specific characteristics, indications.
  4. Gentamicin, amicacin: spectrum of activity, specific characteristics, indications.
  5. Fluoroquinolones: classification, PD, PK, class-specific ADRs and advantages over I generation quinolones.
  6. Ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin: spectrum of activity, PK, and indications.
  7. Erythromycin: spectrum of activity, PK, indications, ADRs.
  8. Factors influencing on drug metabolism. Inducers and inhibitors of hepatic enzymes. Drug interactions of erythromycin.
  9. Azithromycin: spectrum of activity, PK and ADRs in comparison with erythromycin, indications.
  10. Clarithromycin, spiramycin: differences from erythromycin.
  11. Tetracyclines: spectrum of activity, indications, contraindications, drug interactions.
  12. Doxycycline: PK and ADRs in comparison with tetracycline.
  13. Vancomycin: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, indications.
  14. Lincomycin, clindamycin: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, indications.
  15. Chloramphenicol: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, indications.
  16. Rifampicin: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, indications, drug interactions.
  17. Co-trimoxazole: components, spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, indications, and dosing.

Topic 6

Clinical pharmacology of antimicrobial drugs. Part 3 - nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans, antifungal agents

Control questions:

  1. Metronidazole: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, indications.
  2. Nitrofurantoin: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, indications.
  3. Furazolidone: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, and indications in comparison with nitrofurantoin.
  4. Nystatin: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, indications.
  5. Аmphotericin В: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, indications.
  6. Clotrimazole: spectrum of activity, indications, drug formulation.
  7. Ketoconazole: spectrum of activity and PK in comparison with nystatin; indications, ADRs, drug interactions.
  8. Fluconazole: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, and indications in comparison with ketoconazole.
  9. Itraconazole: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, and indications in comparison with fluconazole.
  10. Caspofungin: spectrum of activity, PK, ADRs, indications.


Дата последнего изменения: 03.09.2012 | Просмотров: 5916




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