Кафедра клинической фармакологии СГМА / Лекции и занятия
Факультет иностранных студентов, 6 курс
G.P. Faculty. Year 6
linical pharmacology of medications used for Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD)
- Physiology of coronary blood flow and myocardial metabolism regulation. Role of bioactive compounds (e.g. NO, endotelin) produced by endothelial cells.
- Classification of drugs used in angina pectoris (AP).
- Organic nitrates (ON): classification, PD, PK depending on chemical structure, drug formulation and route of administration (oral, sublingual, IV, transdermal).
- ADRs of ON: prevention and management. Main mechanisms of tolerance to PD effects of ON.
- Indications and contraindications for ON.
- Nytroglycerine: PD, PK, drug formulations, indications.
- Isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide mononitrate: PD, PK, drug formulations, indications in comparison with nitroglycerine.
- Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (BAB): classification, PD, PK properties. Role of selective binding to beta1-adrenoreceptors, membrane-stabilizing action, intrinsic sympathomimetic action, presence of additional alpha-blocking activity and lipid solubility.
- Indications related to cardiovascular disorders, absolute and relative contraindications for BAB.
- ADRs and drug interactions of BAB.
- Propranolol: PD, PK, indications.
- Metoprolol, Atenolol, Bisoprolol, Carvedilol: peculiarities of PD, PK and safety.
- Calcium channel blockers (CCB): classification, PD depending on chemical structure and generation.
- Nifedipine and Amlodipine: PD, PK, indications and contraindications.
- Verapamil: PD, PK, indications and contraindications in comparison with dihydropiridines.
- Diltiazem: PD, PK, indications and contraindications in comparison with verapamil and nifedipine.
- Pharmacotherapy of different types of AP (angina of effort, Prinzmetal’s angina and unstable angina): relief of symptoms and long-term treatment.
- Place of ON and BAB in therapy of acute myocardial infarction.
Clinical pharmacology of medications used for Arterial Hypertension (AH) and Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
- Pathophysiological changes in patients with AH and CHF. Aims and main principles of pharmacotherapy.
- Classification of drugs used in AH.
- Classification of drugs used in CHF.
- Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI): PD, PK depending on chemical structure. Indications for ACEI (AH, CHF, ICD and diabetic nephropathy).
- ADRs and contraindications for ACEI.
- Captopril and Enalapril: peculiarities of PK, PD and tolerance.
- Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB): PD, ADRs and indications as compared to ACEI.
- Losartan: PD, PK, indications and contraindications.
- Centrally acting hypotensive drugs (clonidine, methyldopa): PD, PK, safety profile and use in AH treatment.
- Diuretics: classification according to intensity of action and site of action.
- Thiazide and thiazide like diuretics: PD, indications and ADRs.
- Hydrochlorthiazide, Chlorthalidone and Indapamide: peculiarities of PK, PD and safety profile.
- Loop diuretics: PD, indications and ADRs in comparison with thiazide diuretics.
- Furosemide, Torsemide, Ethacrinic Acid: peculiarities of PK, PD and safety profile.
- Potassium sparing diuretics (spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene): PD, PK, indications and ADRs.
- Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide): PD, PK, therapeutic indications and contraindications.
- Complications of short-term and long-term diuretic therapy.
- Digitalis glycosides: mechanism of action, cardiovascular and extracardiac effects.
- Digoxin: PD, PK, indications and methods of administration.
- ADRs and contraindications for digitalis glycosides. Drug interactions.
- Recognition and treatment of overdigitalization. Risk factors of digitalis toxicity.
- Principles of drug choice in AH. Management of AH in special population (elderly patients, pregnant, etc.). Use of drug combinations.
- Principles of pharmacological treatment of CHF.
Clinical pharmacology of drugs influencing on bronchial obstruction
- General information on bronchial asthma: classification, pathophysiology, diagnostics, differential diagnostics.
- Treatment steps for achieving control in patients with bronchial asthma.
- Modification of asthma therapy: “step-up” and “step-down” therapy.
- Management of asthma exacerbations.
- Management of severe asthma exacerbations in acute care settings.
- Management of bronchial asthma during pregnancy.
- Antiasthmatic agents: a conception of controllers and relievers.
- Characteristics (PD, PK, adverse reactions) and role of selected agents in the treatment of bronchial asthma:
- inhaled and systemic glucocorticosteroids,
- selective/non-selective long and short acting beta-2-agonists,
- leukotriene modifiers,
- Inhaler devices for patients with bronchial asthma.
Clinical and pharmacological principles of choice of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of different infections (2 days)
For day 1
- Principles of empiric antimicrobial therapy, choice of the route of administration and dosage regimens. Consequences of inappropriate use of antimicrobials.
- Time and methods of evaluation of efficacy of antimicrobial therapy. Possible causes of inefficacy.
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of infections caused by Gram(+) microorganisms:
a) staphylococci, including
b) streptococci and pneumococci;
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of infections caused by Gram(-) microorganisms:
а) Haemophilus influenzae;
c) P. aeruginosa.
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of infections caused by anaerobic bacteria:
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of infections caused by Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma spp.
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of infections caused by protozoa (Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba hystolitica).
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of fungal infections:
а) local infections caused by Candida spp.;
б) systemic mycoses.
- Antimicrobials for the treatment of viral infections: influenza, herpes simplex.
For day 2
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (streptococcal pharyngitis, acute otitis media, acute sinusitis).
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections (acute exacerbation of COPD, community-acquired pneumonia, nosocomial pneumonia).
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of infective endocarditis.
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of urinary tract infections (acute cystitis, acute pyelonephritis, chronic prostatitis).
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of bacterial meningitis.
- Choice of antimicrobials for the treatment of infectious diarrhea.
- Use of antimicrobials for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Clinical pharmacology of medications for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders: antiulcer medications, prokinetics, antidiarrheal agents
- Main drugs used for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease.
- Antacids: classification, PD, PK, indications, adverse reactions, drug interactions.
- Н2-receptor antagonists: PD and their place in the management of peptic ulcer disease.
- Cimetidine, ranitidine: differences in adverse reactions and drug interactions.
- Pirenzepine: PD, PK, indications, adverse reactions as compared to atropine.
- Citoprotectors (colloidal bismuth subcitrate, sucralfate): characteristics of PD, PK, indications, adverse reactions, drug interactions.
- Proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole): PD, PK, indications, adverse reactions.
- Rationale schemes for Helicobacter pylori eradication.
- Prokinetics (metoclopramide, domperidone, cisapride): differences in PD, PK; indications, adverse reactions, drug interactions.
- Loperamide: PD, PK; indications, contraindications, adverse reactions.
Дата последнего изменения: 03.09.2012 | Просмотров: 5630